Aksiologi keilmuan

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ESA160 – 7 – Axiology

  1. Axiology adalah bidang yang mempelajari kegunaan ilmu pengetahuan bagi umat manusia. Axiology adalah Ilmu pengetahuan yang menyelidiki tentang hakekat nilai.
  2. Saat ilmuwan dan agamawan mempunyai paham geosentris yang mengartikan  ilmu dan nilai-nilai merupakan dua hal terpisah
  3. Saat Copernicus (1473-1543) menemukan teori heliosentris terjadi interaksi dan friksi antara ilmu dengan nilai-nilai
  4. Interaksi dan friksi berkembang menjadi pertarungan karena para agamawan menganggap bahwa ilmu dan nilai moral tidak dapat dipisahkan, sedangkan para ilmuwan memandang bahwa ilmu bebas dari nilai-nilai
  5. Setelah lebih kurang bertarung selama 250 tahun,  pertarungan tersebut kemudian dimenangkan oleh para ilmuwan, sehingga ilmu meneliti alam apa adanya, dan tidak terkait dengan aspek nilai
  6. Ketika ilmu pengetahuan menjelma menjadi teknologi, friksi dengan nilai-nilai timbul kembali. Timbulnya friksi, karena teknologi bukan hanya menjelaskan tetapi juga  mengontrol dan mengarahkan
  7. Ilmuwan terpecah dua golongan, golongan I (ilmu bebas nilai) dan golongan II (ilmu netral dari segi ontology-nya saja)
  8. Sampai saat ini, ilmu pengetahuan alam (natural sciences) melukiskan obyek apa adanya, bebas tanggapan atau aspek ontology dan  epistemology–nya bebas nilai-nilai, sedangkan axiology (penggunaan) IPA menyangkut yang seharusnya terjadi atau menyangkut nilai-nilai atau tidak bebas nilai.
  9. Demikian pula dengan ilmu pengetahuan sosial (social sciences) yang dipandang bebas nilai hanya pada aspek ontology, sedangkan aspek epistemology dan axiology-nya menyangkut nilai-nilai, karena terkait dengan manusia yang mempunyai tujuan.

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