Axiology

MATERI BELAJAR PENGANTAR FILSAFAT,  OLEH : MULYO WIHARTO

LEKTOR KEPALA, UNIVERSITAS ESA UNGGUL JAKARTA

  1. Axiology adalah bidang yang mempelajari kegunaan ilmu pengetahuan bagi umat manusia. Axiology adalah Ilmu pengetahuan yang menyelidiki tentang hakekat nilai.
  2. Nilai dipandang dengan pendekatan subyektivisme dan obyektivisme. Pendekatan obyektivisme terdiri dan pendekatan obyektivisme logis dan obyektivisme metafisik.
  3. Nilai adalah reaksi yang diberikan seseorang dan keberadaannya tergantung pengalaman (pendekatan subyektivisme). Ini sesuai dengan pendapat R.B. Perry yang menyatakan bahwa nilai adalah obyek kepentingan, sesuatu bernilai jika ada kepentingan terhadapnya. Penilaian berhubungan dengan sikap, perasaan dan  keinginan
  4. Nilai adalah kenyataan berbentuk esensi logis yang diketahui melalui akal, tidak terdapat dalam ruang dan waktu (pendekatan obyektivisme logis). Ini sesuai dengan pendapat John Dewey yang menyatakan bahwa nilai adalah perbuatan memberi nilai, menyangkut tindakan akal untuk  melakukan generalisasi ilmiah. Nilai dipandang dari segi pragmatis, kata kerja atau subyek yang memberi nilai
  5. Nilai adalah unsur-unsur obyektif yang menyusun kenyataan (pendekatan obyektivisme metafisik). Ini sesuai dengan pendapat G.E. More yang menyatakan bahwa nilai adalah kualitas empiris. Untuk menerangkan warna misalnya, tunjukkan saja warna tersebut. Nilai dipandang dari segi semantic, kata benda atau obyek yang diberi nilai
  6. Nilai terdiri atas nilai intrinsic dan nilai instrumental. Nilai intrinsic adalah sesuatu yang benar-benar bernilai, nilai yang hakiki atau sesuatu yang sejak semula sudah mempunyai nilai. Nilai instrumental adalah sesuatu yang diberi nilai, nilai buatan atau sesuatu bernilai karena dipakai sebagai sarana mencapai tujuan.
  7. Nilai cenderung subyektif walaupun telah dirumuskan dengan pendekatan obyektivisme. Nilai harus mempunyai tolok ukur, menilai perbuatan tolok ukurnya adalah moral
  8. Ilmu pengetahuan alam atau IPA (natural sciences) melukiskan obyek apa adanya, bebas tanggapan pada aspek ontology dan  epistemology–nya, sedangkan axiology (penggunaannya) IPA tidak bebas nilai,  menyangkut yang seharusnya terjadi atau selalu menyangkut nilai-nilai.
  9. Ilmu pengetahuan sosial atau IPS (social sciences) bebas nilai hanya pada aspek ontology, sedangkan aspek epistemology dan axiology-nya tidak bebas nilai. IPS menyangkut nilai-nilai, karena terkait dengan manusia yang mempunyai tujuan.

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