Etika

MATERI BELAJAR PENGANTAR FILSAFAT,  OLEH : MULYO WIHARTO

LEKTOR KEPALA, UNIVERSITAS ESA UNGGUL JAKARTA

  1. Etika berasal dari kata ethos,   ta etha, artinya adat, kebiasaan, akhlak, perasaan, sikap, cara berpikir.
  2. Etika sama dengan moral (mos, mores) artinya adat kebiasaan.
  3. Etika adalah cabang axiology yang membicarakan benar – salah dalam arti kesusilaan (moral – immoral).
  4. Etika adalah ilmu yang membicarakan tentang adat kebiasaan, ilmu tentang yang baik dan buruk, filsafat moral atau ilmu tentang apa yang baik dan apa yang buruk, tentang hak dan kewajiban moral
  5. Etika adalah kumpulan nilai mengenai yang benar dan salah yang dianut masyarakat, kumpulan nilai dan norma moral yang menjadi pegangan dalam mengatur tingkah laku, berbentuk kode etik atau kumpulan pengetahuan mengenai penilaian terhadap perbuatan manusia
  6. Etika adalah analisis makna yang dikandung oleh predikat kesusilaan atau menyelidiki penggunaan suatu predikat  dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Predikat tersebut membedakan perbuatan seseorang yang baik (susila) dan tidak baik (tidak susila)
  7. Tujuan etika : (a) Manusia dalam kenyataannya mencari kenikmatan (hedonisme psikologis), (b) Manusia seharusnya mencari kenikmatan (hedonisme etis), (c) Manusia seharusnya mengusahakan kebahagiaan sebesar-besarnya bagi diri sendiri (hedoisme egoistis), (d) Kebahagiaan sebesar-besarnya untuk sebanyak-banyaknya manusia (hedonisme altruistis atau utilitarianisme) dan (e) Seharusnya orang berbuat susila bila ingin berbahagia, ukuran perbuatan benar dan salah terletak pada akibat perbuatannya, bukan perbuatannya (W.T. Stace)
  8. Etika deskriptif menggambarkan suatu obyek secara cermat, bersangkutan dengan pencatatan bermacam-macam predikat dan tanggapan. Etika deskriptif melukiskan predikat dan tanggapan kesusilaan yang telah diterima dan digunakan. Melukiskan tingkah laku dalam arti luas, misalnya adat kebiasaan.
  9. Etika deskriptif mempelajari moralitas yang terdapat pada individu tertentu, dalam kebudayaan tertentu atau sub kultur tertentu. Etika deskriptif melukiskan adat tertentu, netral, tidak memberi penilaian moral
  10. Etika normatif adalah ilmu yang menetapkan ukuran atau kaidah yang mendasari pemberian tanggapan atau penilaian terhadap perbuatan. Etika normatif membicarakan apa yang seharusnya dikerjakan, seharusnya terjadi atau memungkinkan seseorang menetapkan sesuatu yang bertentangan dengan seharusnya.
  11. Etika normatif mengemukakan penilaian tentang perilaku manusia, menilai sesuai dengan norma tertentu. Etika normatif menentukan benar tidaknya tingkah laku atau anggapan moral, bersifat preskriptif (memerintahkan), tidak sekedar melukiskan suatu moral
  12. Sikap sopan, adab, lembut atau halus adalah contoh sebuah etika yang dapat ditunjukkan dari bahasa dan sikap anggota tubuh.
  13. Pilihan kata (baik/kotor), susunan kalimat (teratur/kacau), nada suara (tinggi/rendah), irama suara (keras/lembut) dalam berbahasa dapat menunjukkan seseorang bretika baik atau sebaliknya.
  14.  Sikap yang ditunjukkan oleh anggota tubuh, baik kepala, muka, mata, mulut, bibir, tangan, kaki, dan sebagainya dapat pula menunjukkan seseorangtelah berlaku sopan atau sebaliknya.

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