Jenis-jenis perencanaan


MATERI BELAJAR OMPE DASAR,  OLEH : MULYO WIHARTO

LEKTOR KEPALA, UNIVERSITAS ESA UNGGUL JAKARTA

  • Perencanaan strategik
  1. Perencanaan strategik merupakan salah satu jenis perencanaan jangka panjang.
  2. Membuat perencanaan jangka panjang dalam mennghadapi kondisi yang tidak stabil memerlukan perencanaan strategik, yakni  proses analisis, perumusan dan evaluasi strategi untuk mengembangkan strategi dalam rangka mengatasi ancaman dan merebut peluang.  Tahapan perencanaan strategik, terdiri dari pengumpulan data, analisis data, pengambilan keputusan
  3. Pengumpulan data dilakukan terhadap data internal dan data eksternal. Data internal adalah data yang dimiliki oleh organisasi sendiri, sedangkan data eksternal adalah data yang dimilikioleh pesaing.
  4. Data internal yang dimiliki oleh organisasi sendiri berupa kekuatan (Strength) dan Kelemahan (Weaknesses), sedangkan data ekternal atau data yang dimiliki pesaing adalah peluang (Opportunity) dan ancaman (Threats). Peluang berasal dari kelemahan yang dimiliki pesaing, sedangkan ancaman berasal dari kekuatan yang dimiliki pesaing.  Data eksternal dapat pula berupa lingkungan lain seperti kondisi politik, ekonomi, demografi dsb
  5. Data internal dan eksternal misalnya berupa jumlah SDM, kualitas SDM, kondisi keuangan, kelengkapan sarana medis, kelengkapan sarana penunjang, ketersediaan prasarana yang dimiliki, prosedur pelayanan, kualitas pelayanan, tarif pelayanan, lokasi, promosi yang dilakukan, pangsa pasar yang dimiliki, tingkat kesetiaan konsumen, dsb
  6. Analisis data dilakukan terhadap faktor strategis internal atau internal factor strategic (IFAS) dan faktor strategis eksternal atau external factor strategic (EFAS). IFAS terdiri dari 5 kekuatan dan 5 kelemahan, sedangkan EFAS terdiri dari 5 peluang dan 5 ancaman.
  7. Tentukan bobot dan skala faktor startegis internal untuk menghitung skor IFAS  dalam matriks IFAS sebagai berikut :
  8. No Faktor Strategis Internal Bobot Skala Skor
    A Kekuatan
    1. 1.
    2. 2.
    3. 3.
    4. 4.
    5. 5.
    B Kelemahan
    1. 1.
    2. 2.
    3. 3.
    4. 4.
    5. 5.
    Jumlah
  9. Tentukan bobot dan skala faktor startegis eksternal untuk menghitung skor EFAS  dalam matriks EFAS sebagai berikut :
  10. No Faktor Strategis Eksternal Bobot Skala Skor
    A Peluang
    1. 1.
    2. 2.
    3. 3.
    4. 4.
    5. 5.
    B Ancaman
    1. 1.
    2. 2.
    3. 3.
    4. 4.
    5. 5.
    Jumlah
  11. Bobot masing-masing faktor ditentukan dengan membandingkan satu faktor dengan faktor yang lain dan total bobotnya adalah 100% atau 1,00
  12. Skala menggunakan angka 1 – 4. Skala 1, 2, 3, 4 berturut-turut untuk kekuatan dan peluang yang tidak penting, kurang penting, penting, sangat penting. Skala 1, 2, 3, 4 berturut-turut untuk kelemahan dan ancaman yang sangat penting, penting, kurang penting dan tidk penting
  13. Skor diperoleh dari perkalian bobot masing-masing faktor strategis dengan skala, sehingga diperoleh jumlah skor antara 1,0 – 4,0. Jumlah skor IFAS dan EFAS digunakan sebagai pertimbangan untuk mengambil keputusan atau menetapkan strategi yang akan digunakan dalam membuat perencanaan. Jumlah skor IFAS menunjukkan posisi kekuatan RS dibanding kelemahannya, sedangkan jumlah skor EFAS menunjukkan posisi peluang RS dibanding ancamannya
  14. Skor IFAS di atas 2,0 menunjukkan Strengths (S) lebih besar dari Weaknesses (W), dan jika di bawah 2,0 menunjukkan sebaliknya. Skor EFAS di atas 2,0 menunjukkan Opportunity (O) lebih besar dari Threats (T), dan jika di bawah 2,0 menunjukkan sebaliknya
  15. Jika S > W dan O > T, pilih stategi SO, menggunakan kekuatan untuk merebut peluang,  agresif, ekspansi, growth oriented strategy. Jika S > W dan O < T, pilih stategi ST, menggunakan kekuatan untuk mengatasi ancaman, diversifikasi produk atau proses. Jika S < W dan O > T, pilih stategi WO, memanfaatkan peluang untuk meminimalkan kelemahan, turn-around strategy, stabilisasi. Jika S < W dan O < T, pilih stategi WT, meminimalkan kelemahan dan menghindari ancaman, strategi defensif, pengurangan, retrenchment
  •  Perencanaan proyek
  1. Perencanaan  jangka pendek yang bersifat rutin dilaksanakan sendiri oleh  unit yang bersangkutan, sedangkan perencanaan non rutin, kegitan yang jarang dilakukan,  unik, dan spesifik diselenggarakan dalam bentuk proyek.
  2. Proyek adalah proses untuk menghasilkan produk yang spesifik, unik dan jarang dilakukan. Proyekmerupakan kegiatan yang m jelas awal dan akhirnya  serta dibatasi jadual dan anggaran.
  3. Perencanaan proyek dijabarkan dari perencanaan jangka panjang, perencanaan jangka menengah dan perencanaan jangka pendek non rutin. Perencanaan proyek disusun berdasarkan kunci pokok 5W+1H (what, when, where, who, why, how.
  4. Contoh outline perencanaan proyek :
  • Judul
  • isi perencanaan
  1. Nama kegiatan
  2. Tujuan
  3. Manfaa
  4. Waktu
  5. Tempat
  6. Bentuk kegiatan
  7. Biaya
  8. Peserta
  9. Pelaksana
  10. Penutup
  11. Pengesahan
  • Lampiran :
  1. Cara pendaftaran
  2. Jadual kegiatan
  3. Denah / peta
  4. Daftar acara
  5. Daftar pelaksana
  6. Daftar anggaran
  7. dsb

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