Konsep penggerakkan




  • Pengertian memotivasi dan motivasi
  1. Motivating adalah proses pemberian motif bekerja kepada para bawahan sedemikian rupa sehingga mereka mampu bekerja dengan ikhlas demi tercapainya tujuan organisasi dengan efisien dan ekonomis (Sondang P. Siagian)
  2. Memotivasi adalah usaha sadar untuk mempengaruhi perilaku seseorang agar mengarah tercapainya tujuan (Duncan)
  3. Motivasi adalah dorongan yang timbul pada seseorang untuk berperilaku dalam mencapai tujuan yang ditentukan (Wahjosumidjo)
  • Proses motivasi
  1. Adanya rangsangan berupa keinginan
  2. Keinginan dipengaruhi faktor intrinsik dan ekstrinsik
  3. Ada dorongan berperilaku
  4. Timbul beberapa alternatif tindakan
  5. Memilih alternatif
  6. Berperilaku
  • Teori-teori kebutuhan
  1. Teori hedonisme : Manusia mementingkan kehidupan penuh kesenangan, Memotivasi seseorang dengan memenuhi kesenangannya
  2. Teori naluri : Manusia mempunyai naluri mempertahankan diri, mengembangkan diri dan berkembang biak. Memotivasi seseorang dengan memperhatikan naluri yang menjadi fokusnya
  3. Teori kebudayaan : Perilaku manusia sesuai dengan kebudayaannya.

    Memotivasi seseorang dengan memperhatikan latar belakang kehidupannya
  4. Teori daya dorong : Perilaku seseorang didorong oleh naluri dan diarahkan oleh kebudayaannya,Naluri seseorang kepada lawan jenis sama namun tiap suku bangsa mempunyai sikap berbeda. Memotivasi seseorang memperhatikan naluri dan kebudayaannya
  • Teori Proses Strauss and Saylles
  1. Dengan kekerasan (the strong approach)  : Menekankan wewenang, memaksa dengan ancaman, memberi tahu apa yang harus dilakukan
  2. Bersikap baik (the be good approach) :Membuat bawahan bekerja keras karena rasa terima kasih, memuaskan bawahan dengan menciptakan iklim dan kondisi kerja yang baik, memberi kebebasan sehingga meningkat semangat kerjanya
  3. Melalui kompetisi (competition) :Membuat seseorang bergantung terhadap dirinya untuk bekerja sebaik mungkin, memberikan promosi untuk mereka yang bekerja dengan baik
  4. Internalisasi : Meningkatkan kepuasan dengan pergiliran kerja dan kepuasan kerja
  5. Melalui perundingan implisit : Membuat persetujuan dengan bawahan terhadap  hasil kerja dengan imbalan yang diberikan


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