Ontologi keilmuan

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ESA160 – 2 – Ontology

  1. Ontology (ononthos, being, yang ada) adalah ilmu pengetahuan tentang “yang ada” sebagai yang ada,  hakekat sebenarnya tentang “yang ada” atau hakekat suatu obyek
  2. Ontology disebut juga sebagai metafisika (meta ta physika, hal-hal sesudah fisika). Metafisika adalah hal yang sebenarnya dari sekedar hal-hal yang nampak secara fisik
  3. Yang ada adalah segala yang nyata dan yang nampak, walaupun yang ada tidak harus nyata dan tidak sama dengan yang nampak.
  4. Yang nyata (the real) adalah suatu tangkapan yang dapat dipercaya. Yang nyata adalah ada, tapi yang ada tidak harus nyata
  5. Yang nampak (the aparent, the appearance) adalah suatu tangkapan terhadap gejala. Segala yang nampak adalah ada, namun keberadaannya tidak sama dengan yang nampak
  6. Yang nyata ditandai oleh sifat, ciri atau kualitas yang melekat pada apa saja yang disebut substansi (substance). Substansi menentukan esensi (essence), yaitu  hakekat terdalam sesuatu
  7. Pengertian (konsep, concept, conceptus) terbentuk karena indera melakukan aktivitas merangkai kata (term) yang berasal dari ucapan faktual, pendapat atau kesimpulan suatu esensi
  8. Menjelaskan pengertian dapat dilakukan dengan beberapa caradeduktif, probabilistik, teleologis, dan genetik.
  9. Penjelasan deduktif adalah menjelaskan gejala dengan menarik kesimpulan secara logis dari premis yang ditetapkan.
  10. Penjelasan probabilistik adalah menjelaskan secara induktif dari sejumlah kasus dan bersifat kemungkinan.
  11. Penjelasan teleologis adalah penjelasan yang bersifat fungsional dengan meletakkan unsur-unsur dalam sistem
  12. Penjelasan genetik adalah penjelasan tentang gejala yang muncul dengan mempergunakan faktor yang timbul sebelumnya.

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