Cabang filsafat

MATERI BELAJAR PENGANTAR FILSAFAT,  OLEH : MULYO WIHARTO

LEKTOR KEPALA, UNIVERSITAS ESA UNGGUL JAKARTA

    1. Filsafat dapat dipandang sebagai ilmu, sebagai cara berpikir dan dapat pula dipandang sebagai pandangan hidup. Pandangan kefilsafatan melahirkan cabang-cabang filsafat, baik cabang filsafat secara umum maupun menurut ilmu filsafat.
    2. Filsafat dipandang sebagai ilmu, karena filsafat mengandung pertanyaan keilmuan, yakni (a) apakah atau ontologi  (ontology), (b) bagaimanakah atau epistemologi  (epistemology), dan (c) kemanakah atau aksiologi  (axiology)
    3. Pertanyaan “Apakah” mempertanyakan hakekat suatu  secara mendalam, sehingga yang semula tidak tahu menjadi tahu. Pertanyaan “Bagaimanakah” mempertanyakan sifat-sifat yang dapat ditangkap indera dan  bersifat deskriptif . Pertanyaan “Kemanakah” menghasilkan pengetahuan normatif, pengetahuan tentang tradisi yang dapat dijadikan pedoman, dan dapat meramalkan karena bersifat pengulangan
    4. Filsafat dipandang sebagai cara berpikir, karena filsafat merupakan cara berpikir mendalam tentang hakekat segala sesuatu secara : (a) konsepsional, (b) koheren,(c)  rasional dan (d) sinoptik.
    5. Konsepsional adalah  menggambarkan secara jelas tentang suatu hal atau proses. Sistematis karena setiap unsur berkaitan secara teratur dalam keseluruhan. Koheren artinya unsurnya runtut, atau uraian satu dengan lainnya tidak saling bertentangan. Rasional berarti unsur-unsurnya berhubungan secara logis. Sinoptik yaitu  melihat hal secara menyeluruh (integral)
    6. Filsafat dipandang sebagai pandangan hidup (way of life) yang tercermin dalam sikap dan cara hidup manusia dan menjadi dasar tindakan dalam menyelesaian persoalan hidup. Filsafat bersumber pada kodrat manusia sebagai makhluk individu, makhluk sosial dan makhluk Tuhan.
    7. Sebagai makhluk yang berakal, manusia melahirkan filsafat berpikir (logika).  Sebagai makhluk sosial, manusia menghasilkan filsafat sosial. Sebagai warga negara, manusia merumuskan filsafat negara. Sebagai makhluk Tuhan, manusia menyusun filsafat ketuhanan
    8. Manusia juga mempunyai unsur rasa, raga, jiwa, jiwa-raga, kehendak, kepercayaan dan kehidupan
    9. Unsur rasa  melahirkan filsafat keindahan (estetika). Unsur raga  melahirkan filsafat biologi. Unsur jiwa melahirkan filsafat psikologi. Unsur jiwa-raga melahirkan filsafat antropologi. Unsur kehendak berbuat melahirkan filsafat tingkah laku (etika).  Unsur kepercayaannya melahirkan filsafat agama. Unsur hubungan dengan aspek kehidupan melahirkan filsafat nilai (aksiologi).
    10. Cabang filsafat menurut ilmu filsafat terdiri dari filsafat sistematis, filsafat khusus dan filsafat keilmuan.
    11. Filsafat sistematis meliputi logika, etika,  estetika, metafisika, epistemology. Filsafat khusus meliputi filsafat pendidikan, filsafat sejarah, filsafat bahasa, filsafat hukum, filsafat politik, filsafat agama. Filsafat keilmuan meliputi filsafat matematika,  filsafat biologi, filsafat linguistik, filsafat psikologi, filsafat ilmu-ilmu sosial
    12. Cabang filsafat secara umum terdiri dari filsafat tentang pengetahuan, filsafat tentang kenyataan dan sejarah filsafat
    13. Filsafat tentang pengetahuan terdiri dari logika, epistemology, kritik ilmu, etika, estetika, filsafat tentang tindakan. Filsafat tentang kenyataan terdiri dari ontology, theologi, cosmology. Sejarah filsafat meliputi pemikiran timur, pemikiran barat (Yunani), pemikiran Islam, pemikiran abad pertengahan (Katholik) dan pemikiran abad moderen

 

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