Pengajuan masalah

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ESA160 – 4 – Logico hypotetico verifikasi

  1. Masalah adalah kesenjangan antara harapan dengan kenyataan atau perbedaan kondisi yang diinginkan (das sollen) dengan kondisi yang dialami (das sein)
  2. Kondisi yang diinginkan tertuang dalam teori, hukum atau standar yang ada di berbagai sumber pustaka sedangkan kondisi yang dialami diperoleh dari fakta atau pengalaman empiris
  3. Untuk menemukan permasalahan dengan cepat diperlukan persyaratan sebagai berikut : (a) Peka, yaitu dapat menangkap fenomena yang problematis, (b) Siap, yaitu tahu teori dan hasil penelitian terdahulu, (c) Tekun, yaitu mengikuti perkembangan ilmu yang terkait dan (b) Tahu sumber berupa kepustakaan, pertemuan ilmiah dan pengalaman
  4. Menemukan masalah dengan brainstorming dilakukan dengan langkah-langkah sebagai berikut : (a) Tetapkan suatu topik, (b) Kumpulkan 5 – 15 orang pelontar ide, (c) Bebaskan pikiran pelontar ide segala larangan untuk memfungsikan pikiran seperti angin ribut yang tidak mengenal hambatan, (d) Semua ide yang terlontar dicatat, waktu disesuaikan, (e) Ide yang sama dikelompokkan dan (e) Pilih salah satu ide dengan asas Pareto, yaitu memilih sedikit masalah yang banyak menimbulkan dampak
  5. Menemukan masalah dengan push writing dilakukan dengan langkah-lankah sebagai berikut : (a) Tentukan topik, (b) Tuliskan apa yang diketahui selama 10 – 15 menit, (c) Catat ide yang muncul tanpa perlu banyak dipikir dan  tidak perlu diedit, (d) Lakukan editing setelah semua ide dicatat untuk menyisihkan ide yang tidak meyakinkan, (e) Kelompokkan ide yang sama dan (f) Pilih salah satu ide yang akan dijadikan variabel masalah dengan asas Pareto
  6. Menemukan masalah dengan flow chart dilakukan dengan langkah-langkah sebagai berikut :  (a) Tentukan tahap-tahap kegiatan, (b) Catat masalah yang ditemukan dalam setiap tahap , (c) Kelompokkan masalah yang sama, dan (d) Pilih prioritas masalah dengan asas Pareto
  7. Rumusan permasalahan yang baik mempunyai ciri-ciri sebagai berikut : (a) Substansinya berbobot, orsinil dan belum terjawab, (b) Secara teknis dapat dijawab dengan kemampuan ilmu, metodologi dan fasilitas dan (c) Diformulasikan secara korelatif interogatif, tajam dan jelas
  8. Contoh rumusan masalah : Adakah hubungan faktor X dengan gejala Y di daerah A?, Adakah pengaruh faktor X terhadap gejala Y di  A?, Adakah perbedaan gejala X dengan gejala Y dalam peristiwa Z di daerah A?

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