Pengawasan

PENGAWASAN

MATERI BELAJAR OMPE DASAR,  OLEH : MULYO WIHARTO

LEKTOR KEPALA, UNIVERSITAS ESA UNGGUL JAKARTA

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  • Pengawasan (controlling) adalah proses pengamatan pelaksanaan seluruh kegiatan organisasi untuk menjamin agar semua pekerjaan yang sedang dilakukan berjalan sesuai dengan rencana yang telah ditentukan sebelumnya (Sondang P. Siagian)
  • Pengawasan adalah menentukan apaya yang telah dicapai, menilai hasil pekerjaan danbila perlu mengadakan tindakan pembetulan-pembetulan sehingga hasil pekerjaan sesuai dengan rencana-rencana (George R. Terry)
  • Prinsip-prinsip pengawasan : (1) Ada rencana sebagai alat ukur (standar) pekerjaan yang dilaksanakan, sebagai petunjuk keberhasilan atau kegagalan pekerjaan, (2) Pemberian instruksi yang jelas sebagai standar apakah bawahan melaksanakan pekerjaan dengan baik dan efektif ?
  • Tujuan pengawasan : (1)  Mengusahakan agar yang direncanakan menjadi kenyataan, (2)  Pelaksanaan pekerjaan agar sesuai dengan instruksi yang diberikan, (3) Mengetahui kelemahan/kesulitan agar diperbaiki
  • Jenis-jenis pengawasan : (1) Berdasarkan obyek  : produksi (kuantitas dan kualitas), waktu (ketepatan proses produksi), manusia (kegiatannya) dan keuangan, (2) Berdasarkan subyek : intern (vertikal, formal dari atasan ke bawahan), ekstern (sosial, informal dari luar organisasi, (3) Berdasarkan waktu : preventif (sebelum terjadi penyimpangan), represif, setelah terjadi penyimpangan, (4) Berdasarkan cara :  inspeksi (cepat melihat kesulitan namun tak ada waktu dan merasa ketat diawasi), laporan lisan/tulisan (umpan balik nyata namun sulit membedakan kenyataan dengan pendapat, cenderung melaporkan hal positif)
  • Pengawasan yang baik : (1) Bersifat fact finding, menemukan fakta tentang pelaksanaan, (2) Bersifat preventif,  mencegah timbulnya penyimpangan, (3) Bersifat membimbing,  menemukan kesalahan untuk dikoreksi, bukan mencari siapa yang sala, (4) Alat efisiensi,  mempermudah pencapaian tujuan, pengawasan bukan tujuan, (5) Dilaksanakan secara efisien, (6) Diarahkan untuk masa mendatang
  • Proses pengawasan : (1) Menetapkan standar, berbentuk fisik, kuantitas produk, kualitas produk, waktu, (2) Melakukan penilaian, membandingkan hasil dengan standar, hasil diketahui dari laporan atau mengangkat pengawas, (3) Mengadakan perbaikan, menganalisis sebab terjadinya perbedaan hasil dan standar, meliputi faktor produksi, kemampuan personal

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